Inflammatory Bowel Disease is Associated with Increased risk of other Immune Mediated Diseases
A Danish National Patient Registry based analyses has shown higher rates of immune mediated diseases (IMD) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Inflammatory Bowel Disease is an immune-mediated chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Normally, the cells and proteins that make up the immune system protect you from infection. In people with IBD, however, the immune system mistakes food, bacteria, and other materials in the intestine for foreign or invading substances. When this happens, the body sends white blood cells into the lining of the intestines, where they produce chronic inflammation and ulcerations—called autoimmune response.
There are two types of IBD, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis; both manifest as chronic immune-mediated inflammation of your gastrointestinal system. While they both cause similar symptoms, they are managed differently. Crohn’s disease may affect any part of your gastrointestinal system, from your mouth to the anus. Ulcerative colitis however, is limited to the colon, otherwise known as the large intestine. It is estimated that 1.4 million Americans have IBD, which tends to run in families and affect males and females equally. Researchers have long postulated that individuals with IBD are at increased risk of other IMD’s.
The Danish researchers examined 47,325 IBD patients from the Danish National Patient Registry and compared them to controls from a civilian registry to identify other IMD diagnoses.
Overall they found 20 different IMDs that were significantly more common in the IBD group. These included the following;
- Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)
- Celiac disease
- Pyoderma gangrenosum
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Ankylosing spondylitis
Immune mediated diseases observed predominantly with UC were autoimmune hepatitis, primary biliary cholangitis, Grave's disease, polymyalgia rheumatica, temporal arteritis, and atrophic gastritis.
Immune mediated diseases observed predominantly with Crohn’s disease were psoriatic arthritis and episcleritis.
The authors concluded that there is considerable overlap between IBD and other immune mediated diseases.
Reference: Halling M, Kjeldsen J, Knudsen T, Nielsen J, Hansen L. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease have increased risk of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. World J Gastroenterol. 2017 Sep 7; 23(33): 6137–6146.
Published online 2017 Sep 7. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v23.i33.6137